Tuesday, February 10, 2015

An Update on my Proposed Combined Asia/Oceania World Cup Qualifying Format

One of the reasons that the David Chung-led OFC continues to support Sepp Blatter is because they appear to think he will support them in gaining an automatic OFC place in the World Cup Finals. I happen to believe that President Blatter won't actually do anything concrete to make this happen, particularly as a fifth term in office would surely be his last (wouldn't it?) and he would no longer be in need of any votes, but more importantly, I think that the OFC nations are misguided in believing that this is what they actually want.

Let's think this through.

Currently, the four lowest-ranked OFC teams play a small round robin tournament in the first round of OFC Qualifying. The winners progress to the next round, along with the remaining seven OFC members. In the last edition, this doubled as the Oceania Nations Cup where some of the teams played a frankly ludicrous five matches in nine days in the excessive heat and humidity of Honiara.

The top four teams progressed not only to the Nations Cup semi-finals, the tournament eventually being won by Tahiti, but also to the third round of World Cup Qualifying. A six match home and away mini-league was played, in which New Zealand comfortably came out on top, only to lose to Mexico in the Intercontinental play-offs.

So the upshot was:

i) three minnow teams played three matches against fellow minnows (Tonga, American Samoa and Cook Islands) and then had no other matches to look forward to in the next four years except the South Pacific Games.

ii) one minnow team (Samoa) played three matches against the above three minnow teams, and then three matches against stronger opponents (Tahiti, New Caledonia, Vanuatu) and were then eliminated, and then had no other matches to look forward to in the next four years except the South Pacific Games.

iii) three medium strength teams (Fiji, Vanuatu and Papua New Guinea) played three matches against teams varying in strength from Samoa to New Zealand and Tahiti, were eliminated, and then had no other matches to look forward to in the next four years except the South Pacific Games.

iv) the four strongest teams (New Zealand, Solomon Islands, New Caledonia, Tahiti) played three matches against teams varying in strength from Samoa to New Zealand and Tahiti, progressed to the semi-finals assuring them of two more matches in the Nations Cup plus six matches in the third round of World Cup Qualifying. Tahiti also went to the Confederations Cup, and New Zealand were soundly beaten by Mexico over two legs in the intercontinental play-off. And then, the South Pacific Games for three of these, and for New Zealand.... nothing meaningful.

Giving an automatic World Cup Finals spot to Oceania wouldn't change much. It would result in two fewer intercontinetal play-off games and a guaranteed three World Cup Finals for one team, so potentially in total one more match but also potentially two fewer matches.

Such a format would do little to improve the outcomes for any of the Oceania nations.

It is also extremely hard to justify what would in effect be an automatic spot for New Zealand, a team usually ranked outside the top 100 (I know Tahiti won the last Oceania Nations Cup but I would argue that was the result of a perfect storm of circumstances all coming together at once).

Why not combine OFC qualifying with AFC qualifying? I believe it would be a win-win for both confederations.

My current favourite format is as follows:

Phase 1: 57 nations

OCEANIA (11 members)

Nation with highest FIFA ranking receives bye into Phase 2
Remaining ten nations play round-robin in two groups of five teams (could be part of South Pacific Games)
Top three from each group progress to final group
Top five qualify for Phase 2

ASIA (46 members)

14 nations with highest ranking receive bye into Phase 2
Remaining 32 nations play round-robin in eight groups of four teams
Top two from each group qualify for Phase 2

Phase 2: 36 nations as follows:

1 Highest ranked Oceania nation
5 Qualifiers from Oceania Phase 1
14 Highest ranked Asian nations
16 Qualifiers from Asian Phase 1

Round-robin played in six groups of six teams
Each group includes five AFC teams and 1 OFC team
Top two from each group progress to Phase 3

Phase 3: 12 nations (winners and runners-up from Phase 2 groups)

Round-robin played in two groups of five or two groups of six, depending on configuration of Phase 2
Winners and runners-up in each group qualify for World Cup Finals
The third-placed teams play each other home and away to decide the fifth qualifier

Imagine if this format were used for World Cup Qualifying. Now in addition to all the preliminary games against their Oceania brethren, which would in effect act as warm-up matches, six Oceania nations would play a minimum of ten matches against quality Asian opposition, greatly enhancing their prospects to gain invaluable experience and play meaningful matches against stronger teams than they are used to.

Let's just recall that it is very common for the Oceania nations to not even play the five international matches a year that are the minimum to maximise any FIFA Rankings points won. Oceania stands out from all the other Confederations in this regard.

If they are good enough to progress to Phase 3, they would enjoy another ten matches against strong opposition.

Sure, for one Oceania nation, the chance of qualifying for the World Cup Finals would be diminished, albeit not greatly, given the current play-off system that could see them playing CONMEBOL, CONCACAF or strong AFC opposition, but for six teams this format would be hugely beneficial from a development perspective, and presumably would also provide opportunities for vastly improved broadcasting revenues.

Here's the table of the data for the last five years.





This shows that in four of the last five calendar years, the vast majority of Oceania nations haven't even played five meaningful matches. No other Confederation comes close to matching these depressing numbers.

The combined AFC-OFC format would be a win for Asia too, because currently in reality only four of the 4.5 places available to AFC teams are filled, but this system would usually allow five AFC teams to qualify.

I should note that I would only use this combined system for the men's World Cup. Women's tournaments, age-group tournaments, Beach and Futsal World Cups and the Club World Cup would continue to be run as they currently are, with separate qualifying competitions for AFC and OFC.

There are two reasons for this. Firstly, the costs of sending all these teams across such a large area would be horrendous, and secondly, I believe the OFC has won its Finals spot on merit in all of these other tournaments.

On the subject of costs, there would be additional travel expenses for teams that reach the second phase. Asia is already the biggest area geographically, and adding a potential trip to Tahiti from Lebanon or Jordan would make it even bigger. I envisage that development or other money could go towards defraying some of these costs, and in addition, as already alluded to, increased broadcasting revenues may also help defray some of these additional expenses for at least the Oceania nations involved. Indeed every FIFA member just received $300,000 officially to help defray the costs of competing in FIFA national team tournaments, so there is obviously plenty of money available.

I did a test draw to see how the groupings may look in Phase 2 using this format. I like what I see.


Teams are listed in the order of the Pots they would have been placed in, based on FIFA Rankings. For this draw New Zealand was placed in Pot 4, New Caledonia in Pot 5 and the remaining four Oceania nations in Pot 6.

This entire idea isn't actually that radical. I clearly remember the 1982 World Cup Qualifying format which saw New Zealand qualify after first winning the Oceania Group (which included not only Australia and Fiji but also Indonesia and Chinese Taipei) and then playing China, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia in the final round, eventually qualifying after a one-off play-off against China played in Singapore after the two teams had finished second equal in the group.

Thinking back to 1974, Australia qualified after seeing off New Zealand, Indonesia and Iraq in Subgroup D and then Iran and finally South Korea in the later rounds.

The Asia-Oceania concept officially ended in 1986, although the Oceania group actually consisted of two Asian. but unwelcome in Asia, nations (Israel and Chinese Taipei) in addition to Australia and New Zealand.


Thursday, February 5, 2015

FIFA GOAL Projects Approved 1999-2014

I downloaded all the GOAL Project data into Excel from the FIFA website, one country at a time, using a macro, and then spent quite a bit of time reworking it into a usable format. FIFA doesn't make it easy to mine data from FIFA.com.

I then imported it into Tableau and created some rudimentary dashboards and visualisations. Forgive my beginning Tableau skills.

The blogger.com site doesn't display it properly, so you should view it on the Tableau Public website.

I added a second sheet showing Total Approved Payments by Country and Year, based on a four-year grouping ending in World Cup Finals years. I was surprised to see two quite wealthy countries in the top five recipients of GOAL and FAP funding, with Bahrain in first place overall and the United Arab Emirates in fifth.

You can click on different parts of the dashboards to see some of the underlying data, If they aren't working, the Tableau Public site is probably down.

The different colours in the first dashboard relate to different Project Categories (Headquarters, Technical Centre, Football Pitch, IT Projects, etc.) There is quite a lot of overlap in the way they are recorded on the FIFA website. You can see which is which by hovering over different segments of the chart. If you click on a segment it acts as a filter for the table below (be patient, it may take a few seconds).

The total budget amount includes both GOAL Project funding and FAP (Financial Assistance Project) funding.

The projects with NULL years are actually apparently the pilot projects approved in 1999.

I included the FIFA three-letter Trigramme because it is useful to know if you want to look at one of FIFA's webpages for just one country. For example, to see a PDF in English about Kazakhstan's GOAL Projects through 2010, enter this URL in your browser:  http://www.fifa.com/mm/goalproject/KAZ_eng.pdf 
To change to another country, just change the trigramme. For example, replace the KAZ with NZL to see the equivalent New Zealand page.

One thing that surprised me is how much GOAL Project support UEFA countries have received over the past five or six years. When you throw in the funding from other non-FIFA sources, UEFA receives much more than any other confederation (not shown on my dashboard).

From looking at the second dashboard, I noted that the total amount approved for all African countries combined across all fifteen years is about US$105 million. To put that in perspective, FIFA paid more than a quarter of that amount to fund the self-aggrandizing box office flop, United Passions, in 2014.

Indeed, FIFA spent more on United Passions than it gave to the top ten African recipient nations combined across the entire 16 years since GOAL Projects were introduced. Maybe that puts FIFA's commitment to Africa under Sepp Blatter's presidency in context.

Of course, the dashboard relies on the data on FIFA's website being accurate, complete and up-to-date.

If anyone would like the underlying data for their own visulalisations, tweet me @NextFIFAPres and I would be happy to send what I have. I can foresee additional data such as number of players, population and GDP being included.

I would also welcome ideas for better visualisations.

Hope you find this useful. Would love to see what a true pro Tableau user could do with this.

Friday, January 30, 2015

8 Areas of the Laws of the Game that the IFAB should Clarify

In an earlier blog post, The Debate of Football, I listed seven areas of the game that I believe are not well understood by players, coaches, supporters, media and even referees, even those at the highest levels, let alone those at youth and grass roots levels, and which I think need clarification. The longer the game is played without the International Football Association Board addressing these issues, the longer we will allow controversy to rage.

I will go into more depth on each of these areas below, using screenshots from the Laws of the Game section of the FIFA website and example videos from Youtube.


1. Handling


For the most part it is understood that handling the ball is only an offence if it is deliberate. The problems arise in defining deliberate.

It is very rare that a player deliberately handles the ball. We can think of the occasional premeditated or instinctive handling offence, where a defending player deliberately moves their hands towards the ball to prevent a goal being scored, such as Luis Suarez in the 2010 World Cup Quarter-Final against Ghana, that are obvious to everyone watching and no-one disputes that an offence has occurred. More on that incident later.

After that we get into grey areas where there is not complete agreement between people who see the offence.

The general understanding now is that in addition to deliberate infractions, handling is an offence if the player who handled either had his or her arm in an unnatural position or was making himself or herself 'big'.

What is an unnatural position?

In general most people would agree that having an arm out parallel to the ground or raised above the head would be unnatural. But what about a player who is running a a few yards from a player who crosses the ball and attempts to block the cross? This is, in itself, a natural action by a defender, and it is very difficult to control where the arms will be when trying to legally block the ball. There is definitely some overlap with the concept of making yourself big.Sometimes defenders can be seent to make a concerted effort to keep their arms behind their bodies. Is this necessary? Should we punish players who don't go these lengths if the ball strikes their arm?

What about a player who is sprinting back to help out defensively and is unable to avoid contact with the ball with the hand that is raised as result of sprinting?

What about a player who is falling over in a challenge and in going down accidentally plays the ball with a hand? In general, having a hand on the surface of the pitch is not a natural position for a footballer, but it is natural for a player who is falling over.

At youth level, what about a player who is standing a few feet from the goal and has an easy chance to score with a header, but closes his eyes and as a result the ball makes contact with his hand instead of his head and then goes into the goal? It is not deliberate, his hands were in a natural position, yet he has gained an obvious advantage from his own poor play.

Finally, how is making yourself big defined?

A player standing on the goal line with arms outstretched is clear-cut enough, but what about a player attempting to close down an opponent who is about to play a fifty yard pass? As the player approaches the player with the ball, how much leeway is given to move their arms out to the side, thus potentially blocking the pass?

Personally when I referee, I try to determine whether the handling incident was reasonably avoidable. If I determine that it was, I will award a free-kick. If I determine that it wasn't, play will continue. This method leaves much to the opinion of the referee, though I would note that the way the laws of the game are written, that is the intention - to allow the referee to decide.

I don't know the answers to all the questions I've posed above, but I would like to see some consistency, which is why I think Handling needs clarification from the IFAB.

Sometimes it doesn't even appear that there is consistency within the same game by the same referee. The video below from the 2014 Scottish Cup semi-final includes a penalty awarded to Hearts 6:00 in, and then at 8:45 a similar incident at the other end not resulting in a penalty for Celtic. Perhaps the referee saw a key difference between the two incidents but to the average fan it is not clear what that difference is.




2. Foul Recognition


There is so much to discuss here.

Firstly, we need to note the key differences between the first seven offences and the last three offences. The last three are ALWAYS deemed to be offences, with the proviso that the referee can invoke the advantage clause to allow play to continue. The first seven are only deemed to be offences if the referee considers that they were committed in a way that was careless, reckless or using excessive force. People who are unfamiliar with the nomenclature may well be wondering about fouls that are deliberate but not careless, reckless or using excessive force. Trust me when I say they are included in this definition.

Anyone who has played the game is aware that there is a lot of contact during a game and that a large percentage of that contact is purely incidental. If the referee were to award a free-kick every time contact occurred, the game would be ruined as a spectacle as it would be constantly stopping and starting. No-one wants to see that, not players, referees, coaches, nor spectators. This applies most often to pushing, tripping, kicking an opponent (accidentally rather than violently) , jumping at an opponent or charging an opponent, although it's hard to imagine that striking an opponent would be anything other than deliberate. The exception to all of this is holding (e.g. grabbing part of an opponent's body or holding an opponent's shirt, however briefly) which is designed to arrest momentum, the theory being that this is always a deliberate action.

So it's clear the way this Law is worded that there is leeway for referees to make a judgement call as to whether to ignore certain types of contact while punishing others. This is why I get so annoyed when I hear a commentator justifying a player diving by saying, "Well, there WAS contact." Maybe, but a lot of the time the contact is so insignificant that it wouldn't cause a five year-old to fall over, let alone a fit and strong footballer. If that same sort of contact happened in a busy shopping mall it wouldn't be enough for the player to fall to the ground and then justify it on the basis that "there was contact."

A second factor to consider is that quite often the contact is clearly avoidable but deliberately initiated by the player who goes down. I've heard professional players justify this action by saying the opponent shouldn't have put themselves in a position where the player with the ball can run into them. I say this is utterly wrong, against both the spirit of the game and the intent of the Law, and is actually a form of cheating.

The example below shows just such a case. Ashley Young of Manchester could easily avoid Sunderland's Wes Brown, but instead chooses to start going down before any contact is made, knowing his momentum will carry him into his opponent.



Time for a clarification please, IFAB! And remember, the LOTG apply to all football, including youth and grass roots.


3. Stoppage Time


The amount of stoppage time added to matches is laughable in its inconsistency. Let's have some sensible guidelines so the amount of additional time is somewhat transparent. How much time should be added on for lengthy goal celebrations, substitutions, injuries or deliberate delays of the game?

Once upon a time it was suggested that each substitution should result in an additional thirty seconds being played. This suggestion did not take into account that replaced players from teams that are winning tend to leave the field much more slowly, often going out of their way to 'sportingly' shake hands with the referee as they slowly leave the field, than players from teams that are losing. Nevertheless, a well-known BBC radio commentator persists in repeating this myth every time he commentates on a friendly international in which each team has made six changes, sneeringly saying there should be at least six minutes just for the substitutes, when the board held up by the fourth official shows three minutes.

I have seen two back-to-back Premier League matches which both had three minutes added to the second half, in which the first match saw five second half substitutions, four goals, a two-minute injury break and three bookings, while the second half of the second match had no goals, no injuries, no bookings and just four quickly carried out substitutions. How on earth can both matches have the same amount of stoppage time?

Part of the problem is that there are no clear guidelines and referees probably estimate how much time to add rather than actually keep track, which would be an additional difficult task on top of everything else they are trying to do.

Another problem is that players who delay the restart of play are often not punished with a yellow card, so additional time continues to be unnecessarily wasted throughout the course of the match until action is finally taken. Below is a list of possible yellow card infractions for what used to be known as time-wasting.


A further consideration is that typically referees won't end the game unless the ball is in neutral territory. Very often they will let a team take a corner to see if they can score, but on a goal-kick as soon as the ball is kicked and has left the penalty area, the final whistle will blow with the ball in mid-air.

Stoppage time is also typically reduced if one team has an unassailable lead, such as when ten minutes are lost to injury but only two additional minutes are played because a team is winning 7-0. But this actually seems a little unfair in a competition that could be decided by goal difference.

Here's an example from an MLS match in 2013 of the referee finishing a match when New England, leading 2-1, are about to score a third goal. If DC United, losing 2-1 at the time, had been about to score an equaliser, would full-time have been whistled? The incident in question begins with a corner to DC United 8:40 into the video.



If referees would ensure a fair amount of added time, maybe we wouldn't see these ridiculous confrontations after a goal is scored when a player from the team that has scored rushes into the goal and tries to grab the ball off the goalkeeper or a defender who is holding it.

"Provoking a confrontation by deliberately touching the ball after the referee has stopped play" is a yellow card offence and the team that has just scored has no more right to the ball when their opponents will be restarting the game with a kick-off from halfway than they do if their opponents will be restarting the game with a goal-kick, free-kick, corner or throw-in.

Finally, there have been studies done that indicate that certain teams ('big' teams, home teams, etc.) are given more time to score when they are losing than 'small' teams or visiting teams.

In the interests of fairness and transparency, the IFAB needs to clarify how stoppage time should be calculated.


4. Offside


Although many people do not understand the Offside Law well, for the most part, referees, players, coaches, TV pundits and commentators and knowledgeable fans have no problem with most of it.

Interfering with play, despite what Bill Shankly may have said, is now defined as actually touching the ball. That's easy to understand. There is an objective criterion which leaves no leeway for the referee to make a subjective decision.

Interfering with an opponent is also spelled out. It involves a little leeway for the opinion of the referee to come into play. Note that a player is in an offside position who may be distracting the goalkeeper or defenders is not considered to be interfering with an opponent, unless the player either obstructs the vision of an opposing team player (which would presumably usually be the goalkeeper, but could theoretically also be a defender) or challenges an opponent for the ball.

An article about the winning goal scored by Tom Huddlestone in a Premier League game between Fulham and Tottenham discusses this point. The then Fulham manager, Mark Hughes, surely had a point when he said, "Mark Schwarzer has to hold his position until the ball actually reaches where Gallas is, because he is thinking that at some point Gallas may stick out a toe and deflect it. To say he is not interfering and not in the goalkeeper's eyeline is completely at odds with the truth."

Now we come to the third part. What is meant by gaining an advantage?

A ball that rebounds off the posts or crossbar is easy to understand. Again, there is no room for subjectivity here. Either the ball rebounded off the frame of the goal or it didn't.

The confusion and subjectivity arises when a player who was in an offside position when the ball was last played by a teammate, receives a ball via a touch by an opponent. The law, as written, divides this scenario into three different situations:

i. The ball merely rebounds of an opponent who made no attempt to deliberately play it. In this situation, the opponent counts the same as a post or the crossbar, and the attacking player is ruled to be offside.
ii. The ball rebounds or deflects to the attacker as the result of a deliberate save (usually by the goalkeeper, but again theoretically it could be by a defender). In this situation the attacking player is again ruled to be offside.
iii. The ball reaches the attacking player via a touch from an opponent who made a deliberate attempt to play the ball. This could be, for example, intercepting a deliberate pass back to the goalkeeper, or it could be from a defender attempting to intercept a pass intended for the attacking player, who only manages a slight contact and doesn't prevent the ball reaching its intended target. In situations such as these, the player is NOT deemed to be offside.

This means that if a defender is unsure as to whether an attacker is going to be called offside, there is a risk in attempting to intercept a pass:

- If he is successful, fine. The offside decision becomes moot.
- If he doesn't manage to touch the ball, he's lost nothing. His opponent may still be called offside.
- But if he touches the ball but not enough to prevent it reaching the attacker, he's ensured that his opponent is now definitely onside, when there's a chance he would have been offside if he hadn't attempted the interception.

Under the Law as outlined above, it appears that a new phase of play is considered to have begun when either an opponent of a player in the offside position deliberately plays the ball, or a teammate of the player touches the ball, deliberately or not. Once this new phase of play has begun, whether or not a player had been offside is irrelevant and the player's offside status has to be recalculated.

This also means that a player who is potentially offside by twenty yards can run into the opposing penalty area unmarked and score if an onside team-mate takes possession and then passes the ball back to the 'offside' player. The Law says that this is not gaining an advantage. A lot of football people would disagree. 

There is a huge amount of leeway for subjectivity with regard to did the ball merely rebound from an opponent, or was the opponent attempting to make a save, or did the opponent deliberately play the ball, particularly when the ball doesn't go in the direction intended. This is inevitably going to result in inconsistency of interpretation not only between different confederations and countries, but also between referees in the same league. It is this "gaining an advantage"part of the Offside law that I believes require clarification from the IFAB, along with the distribution of some really good educational materials.


5. Consistency of Cards


Sometimes certain fouls are punished with yellow cards, while similar fouls just result in a free-kick. A foul that would normally result in a yellow card may not be punished if the offender already has a yellow card. Fouls early in the match may not be punished with a card while the same foul later on sees the offender punished. A player may commit six fouls with no card, while another receives a yellow card for persistent infringement after two or three fouls. It is understood that cards are a management tool for referees, but increased consistency should still be encouraged.

Especially early in the game, referees may shy away from giving cards, even though the LOTG make no reference to the amount of time played in the section on Cautionable Offences. I've heard commentators say that the referee has caused himself problems by awarding an early card, because now he has to punish similar fouls the same way. It's not an argument I entirely agree with, because by clearly punishing a bad early foul, the referee can convey the message to everyone at the stadium that that type of foul is not going to be permitted, thereby possibly proactively preventing similar fouls from occurring.

It seems particularly wrong that a player who has already been given a yellow card can commit a foul easily worthy of a second yellow card and be let off. One of the reasons for giving a card in the first place is to attempt to change the behaviour of the player receiving it. By showing that he has been unwilling or unable to change his behaviour, surely the player is not deserving of leniency.

It is also common to see blatant dissent during top level matches and very rare to see it being punished. This sets a terrible example for grass roots players. It certainly isn't tolerated in rugby, where the punishment is usually to move the restart forward ten yards closer to the goal-line.

Ultimately, once again, what is needed is consistency. It is understood that all games are different and no two incidents are exactly the same, but there is enough obvious inconsistency to confuse people who play, coach and watch the game.

Of course there are occasions when cards are correctly given early in matches. Here's the Colorado Rapids goalkeeper be given a red card for DOGSO in the first thirty seconds of an MLS game. The incident occurs about 57 seconds into the video.



Here's a second yellow card wrongly awarded to a player removing his shirt as he is walking off the field to be substituted, meaning he is now sent off and cannot be replaced. According to the LOTG, the yellow card for removing a shirt only applies to celebrating a goal.




6. Denying an Obvious Goalscoring Opportunity


Note that "Denying a Goal" ONLY applies to handling the ball to prevent it entering the goal, as in the aforementioned Luis Suarez incident against Ghana in the 2010 World Cup quarter-final.

"Denying an Obvious Goalscoring Opportunity" (DOGSO) can apply to any foul that results in a free-kick to the opposing team. There is disagreement among some as to whether this can also include handling the ball because the argument goes that handling is not an offence committed against an opponent, but instead against a team. My interpretation is that it should be included. Otherwise a player who handles a stationary ball to prevent an opponent from kicking it into an empty net could not be sent off. Likewise, a goalkeeper who leaves the penalty area and handles a ball that is flicked over him but would not reach the goal without an additional touch from an attacker could also not be sent off for DOGSO if handling doesn't count.

There is huge inconsistency in the interpretation of DOGSO between countries and referees. In England, many people believe, "If he's the last man he has to go." In the United States the four D's are used (Direction of play, number of Defenders, Distance from the ball, Distance from the goal). If any of those four criteria doesn't check the right box, DOGSO is considered not to have occurred.

In the real world, DOGSO is probably located somewhere between those two extremes. The referee should try to subjectively determine the likelihood that a goal would have been scored considering the four D's but not being a slave to them.

Certainly being "the last man" should not be, in and of itself, the sole criterion for the referee giving a red card, as happened to Mikel Arteta of Arsenal in a match away to Crystal Palace in 2013. The clash happened near both the centre circle and the touchline and there were defenders racing back who could conceivably have prevented Marouane Chamakh from even being able to attempt a shot. Ignoring the fact that the collision was as much instigated by Chamakh, who was running away from the ball, as it was by Arteta, who was running towards the ball, it is certainly questionable as to whether it was an obvious goalscoring opportunity. (The cynics among the Arsenal fans were heard to mutter that even if Chamakh were two yards out with the ball at his feet and an open goal, it still wouldn't be an obvious goalscoring opportunity, but that's a separate issue.)

Here's the incident, beginning at 0:20 of the video.



Another consideration for the IFAB should be how to punish these DOGSO fouls. Should it be a yellow card, time in a sin bin, a red card, a red card plus a suspension or some other punishment? Does it make any difference if a goal is scored from a resulting penalty? What if the offence occurred outside  the penalty area? Should the intent of the player committing the offence be taken into consideration? The current 'Triple Punishment' seems especially harsh when a defender receives his marching orders for an unintentional and possibly questionable foul that doesn't prevent an obvious goalscoring opportunity.


7. Encroachment at Penalty Kicks

Penalty kicks are a special type of free kick, awarded to the attacking team when an infringement that would have otherwise resulted in a direct free kick takes place in the penalty area.

There are some significant differences between how penalty kicks are conducted and how direct free kicks are conducted.


On just about every penalty kick taken at the highest levels of the game, it is easy to spot encroachment by players entering the penalty area too quickly, and yet instances where the referee chooses to apply the law and order a retake are so rare as to be noteworthy.

Here's what happens when a referee applies the letter of the law (video quality not the best).



Surely the point of the rules on encroachment is to prevent players from gaining an unfair advantage in the event that the ball remains in play, which happens relatively infrequently. Therefore, I believe it's time for the IFAB to reconsider the law so that it is only applied when a player who encroaches actually touches the ball. And when this actually happens, it should be applied mercilessly.

This would mean that, no matter who encroaches into the penalty area:

a) if a goal is scored directly from the penalty-kick, it would be awarded.
b) if the goalkeeper catches the ball, play would continue with the goalkeeper in possession.
c) if the ball goes directly out of play, the match would restart with a goal-kick (or throw-in).

d) if the goalkeeper deflects the ball out of play, the match would continue with a corner (or throw-in).
e) if the ball rebounds off the post, crossbar or goalkeeper, play would continue if the ball is not touched by a player who has encroached.

The penalty-kick would only be retaken if the ball rebounds to a player from the defending team who has encroached. I was considering the possibility that this should be indirect free-kick, but to be consistent with how encroachment at a direct free-kick is handled (i.e. a retake), I am opting for a retake of the penalty.

In the event an attacking player who has encroached touches the ball first from a rebound, a freee-kick would be awarded to the defending team at the spot where the player touched the ball. Indirect or direct, take your pick; it's unlikely to make a significant difference.

On the other hand, encroachment by a goalkeeper (leaving the goal-line before the kick has been taken) should always be punished with a retake when a goal isn't scored, even if the ball is shot high or wide by the taker, because the very act of moving forward reduces the amount of space that is available for the kicker to score into, and therefore gives the goalkeeper an unfair advantage.

Here's an example of a rare, twice retaken penalty in an MLS match between the Portland Timbers and DC United due to goalkeeper encroachment. It still seems to be relatively rare that the assistant referee, whose sole job is to look for encroachment by the goalkeeper, actually flags when a goalkeeper has infringed.



In passing I would note that there have been at least two incidents I am aware of when a referee has made a serious technical error when ruling that encroachment has occurred.

The first occurred in a very important match between Uzbekistan and Bahrain in a World Cup Qualifying match in 2005. I don't have a video of the incident, but the referee ruled that an attacking player had encroached and instead of allowing Uzbekistan to retake the kick, he awarded an indirect free-kick to Bahrain. Uzbekistan went on to win the match 1-0, FIFA ordered a rematch because of the serious nature of the refereeing error, the replayed game ended 1-1, and Bahrain went on to win the two-legged tie on aggregate before succumbing to Trinidad & Tobago in the intercontinental play-off that followed.

The second occurred very recently, in a group match between New Zealand and New Caledonia in the Oceania Under 17 championship played in January 2015 in Samoa and American Samoa. With New Zealand leading 3-1, New Caledonia were awarded a penalty. A goal was scored but the referee ordered a retake because players from both teams were adjudged to have encroached.

From the retake, a goal was again scored, but the referee ruled that an attacking player had encroached. Instead of permitting another retake, he made the same error as the Japanese referee had made in the Uz bekistan-Bahrain match in 2005, awarding an indirect free-kick to New Zealand. New Caledonia went on to lose the match 4-5. There was no FIFA-ordered replay in this game, even though the team that had been cheated eventually lost.

Here's a video of the highlights of the match. The penalty incident begins at 2:30. Even though the goal was disallowed, it isn't obvious in the video.





8. Throw-ins Taken from the Wrong Place

Here is a goal from last weekend in La Liga. The ball boy quickly throws the ball to the Celta Vigo player (the visiting team no less) who takes the throw from too far up the pitch and a goal is scored. Most of the players seem to still be watching the ball that has just been kicked out.



Here is a controversial incident from the Finnish League that occurred because the officials didn't insist that the throw-in be taken at roughly the right spot. As a result, two balls are put into play 35-40 yards apart and are briefly both on the field, with a goal scored and ultimately awarded using the ball that was probably thrown in from much too far up the touchline.



At a lot of the refereeing training sessions I have attended I have been told that throw-ins shouldn't be focused on too much, because they are just a fifty-fifty way of returning the ball into play. My response to that is always that the teams these people have been refereeing must be very poorly coached. A well-coached team should retain possession 90% of the time from their own throw-in.

My forty plus years as a player make me fully aware that players who take throw-ins from the wrong place almost always know what they are doing and are trying to gain an unfair advantage.

I especially note that when the ball leaves the field of play near the corner flag, it is almost never thrown back in at the correct spot. Defending players don't want to get boxed in and attacking players want a bit of space to work with. It has got to the stage that I'm thinking maybe it's time to consider a rule change that would permit any ball that goes out of play within ten yards of the corner to be returned to play from any point within ten yards of the corner. At least that way the honest players won't be disadvantaged like they are now. This seems to be pretty much the unwritten rule anyway.

Finally, speaking of throw-ins, if you've made it this far, you deserve a laugh. Here's what can happen when a player encroaches at a throw-in. Perhaps he should have protected his face instead of the part of his body he did protect. Good, proactive refereeing would have prevented this from happening. Opponents must be at least two yards from the player throwing the ball, but this player seems to be about a foot from the line. Unbelievably, he chooses to, and is permitted to, stand in the exact same place again when play restarts.



Wednesday, January 21, 2015

Player, Club and Official data that I downloaded from FIFA.com website

Player, Club and Official data that I downloaded from FIFA.com website. I will be doing something with this within the next few days.

*Cook Islands shown on FIFA website as 1800 Registered Players, 200 Unregistered Players and 1200 All Players, which doesn't add up.

Montenegro and South Sudan numbers not available on FIFA website.

British Virgin Islands and Montserrat number of clubs not available on FIFA website.

FIFA website lists Australia as part of Oceania.


Country Trigramme Confederation Surface area (km²) Registered players Unregistered Players All Players Clubs Officials
Afghanistan AFG Asia 647,500 19,781 507,000 526,781 225 145
Albania ALB Europe 28,748 53,730 111,000 164,730 456 6,200
Algeria ALG Africa 2,381,740 203,900 1,586,300 1,790,200 2,090 24,500
American Samoa ASA Oceania 199 2,038 1,210 3,248 33 237
Andorra AND Europe 468 3,037 2,000 5,037 27 168
Angola ANG Africa 1,246,700 16,440 648,250 664,690 103 2,059
Anguilla AIA CONCACAF 102 902 695 1,597 15 70
Antigua and Barbuda ATG CONCACAF 443 2,200 4,400 6,600 21 133
Argentina ARG South America 2,766,890 331,811 2,327,000 2,658,811 3,377 37,161
Armenia ARM Europe 29,800 41,453 109,900 151,353 83 4,944
Aruba ARU CONCACAF 193 5,900 4,800 10,700 62 126
Australia AUS Asia 7,686,850 435,728 535,000 970,728 3,868 67,632
Austria AUT Europe 83,858 596,281 371,000 967,281 2,311 392,802
Azerbaijan AZE Europe 86,600 19,670 286,700 306,370 83 13,000
Bahamas BAH CONCACAF 13,940 2,544 15,400 17,944 41 266
Bahrain BHR Asia 665 4,078 14,200 18,278 52 710
Bangladesh BAN Asia 144,000 271,300 6,009,000 6,280,300 4,100 75,604
Barbados BRB CONCACAF 431 15,840 21,710 37,550 134 1,326
Belarus BLR Europe 207,600 25,810 348,000 373,810 160 1,475
Belgium BEL Europe 30,510 443,383 373,200 816,583 2,058 79,645
Belize BLZ CONCACAF 22,966 3,150 14,650 17,800 42 670
Benin BEN Africa 112,620 7,800 312,800 320,600 110 1,700
Bermuda BER CONCACAF 53 3,855 3,300 7,155 58 255
Bhutan BHU Asia 47,000 1,200 15,900 17,100 10 200
Bolivia BOL South America 1,098,580 57,200 521,600 578,800 897 3,300
Bosnia-Herzegovina BIH Europe 51,129 69,040 131,200 200,240 773 11,820
Botswana BOT Africa 600,370 14,452 84,180 98,632 63 2,578
Brazil BRA South America 8,511,965 2,141,733 11,056,000 13,197,733 29,208 61,000
British Virgin Islands VGB CONCACAF 153 435 1,120 1,555
21
Brunei Darussalam BRU Asia 5,770 1,400 6,100 7,500 20 133
Bulgaria BUL Europe 110,910 50,633 276,400 327,033 579 2,571
Burkina Faso BFA Africa 274,200 23,200 581,900 605,100 100 3,100
Burundi BDI Africa 27,830 11,934 340,400 352,334 165 9,632
Cambodia CAM Asia 181,040 5,511 224,000 229,511 65 230
Cameroon CMR Africa 475,440 22,045 763,470 785,515 223 7,776
Canada CAN CONCACAF 9,976,140 865,712 1,830,000 2,695,712 10,000 189,624
Cape Verde Islands CPV Africa 4,033 11,500 23,600 35,100 82 756
Cayman Islands CAY CONCACAF 262 1,300 2,400 3,700 10 300
Central African Republic CTA Africa 622,984 8,404 184,000 192,404 140 3,610
Chad CHA Africa 1,284,000 5,750 424,000 429,750 50 2,282
Chile CHI South America 756,950 478,337 2,130,000 2,608,337 5,762 26,374
China PR CHN Asia 9,596,960 711,235 25,455,100 26,166,335 2,221 129,057
Chinese Taipei TPE Asia 35,980 12,560 445,900 458,460 60 476
Colombia COL South America 1,138,910 291,229 2,752,000 3,043,229 2,773 15,800
Comoros COM Africa 2,171 1,100 26,000 27,100 10 100
Congo CGO Africa 342,000 9,060 191,150 200,210 90 1,099
Congo DR COD Africa 2,345,410 77,600 2,438,000 2,515,600 770 10,600
Cook Islands COK Oceania 240 1,800 400 2,200 42 200
Costa Rica CRC CONCACAF 51,100 50,588 1,034,000 1,084,588 254 4,866
Côte d'Ivoire CIV Africa 322,460 23,200 778,500 801,700 220 4,500
Croatia CRO Europe 56,542 109,799 252,715 362,514 1,464 17,488
Cuba CUB CONCACAF 110,860 46,425 1,095,400 1,141,825 353 5,255
Curaçao CUW CONCACAF 444 1,820 2,400 4,220 41 362
Cyprus CYP Europe 9,250 19,203 33,200 52,403 108 2,200
Czech Republic CZE Europe 78,866 686,257 354,100 1,040,357 4,108 12,881
Denmark DEN Europe 43,094 301,333 210,000 511,333 2,383 56,992
Djibouti DJI Africa 23,000 2,520 33,800 36,320 8 480
Dominica DMA CONCACAF 754 1,300 3,200 4,500 21 139
Dominican Republic DOM CONCACAF 48,730 50,004 451,000 501,004 350 1,610
Ecuador ECU South America 283,560 30,855 998,800 1,029,655 201 4,455
Egypt EGY Africa 1,001,450 52,110 3,086,000 3,138,110 608 18,270
El Salvador SLV CONCACAF 21,040 47,792 411,900 459,692 70 5,853
England ENG Europe 130,423 1,485,910 2,678,200 4,164,110 42,490 168,186
Equatorial Guinea EQG Africa 28,051 2,290 23,300 25,590 22 115
Eritrea ERI Africa 121,320 28,218 353,000 381,218 26 1,553
Estonia EST Europe 45,226 9,324 47,700 57,024 152 662
Ethiopia ETH Africa 1,127,127 56,245 3,418,000 3,474,245 1,004 310,600
Faroe Islands FRO Europe 1,399 5,694 2,400 8,094 40 1,050
Fiji FIJ Oceania 18,270 30,088 19,600 49,688 410 3,046
Finland FIN Europe 337,030 148,649 214,000 362,649 1,260 16,955
France FRA Europe 547,030 1,794,940 2,395,100 4,190,040 20,062 285,723
FYR Macedonia MKD Europe 25,333 22,896 71,000 93,896 472 1,865
Gabon GAB Africa 267,667 8,300 61,500 69,800 60 1,000
Gambia GAM Africa 11,300 4,530 63,500 68,030 51 700
Georgia GEO Europe 69,700 26,786 195,400 222,186 209 1,233
Germany GER Europe 357,021 6,308,946 10,000,000 16,308,946 26,837 159,172
Ghana GHA Africa 239,460 27,500 960,000 987,500 280 5,200
Greece GRE Europe 131,940 359,221 401,400 760,621 5,768 13,330
Grenada GRN CONCACAF 344 1,652 5,030 6,682 20 150
Guam GUM Asia 549 2,685 2,775 5,460 20 156
Guatemala GUA CONCACAF 108,890 154,649 1,852,000 2,006,649 139 5,403
Guinea GUI Africa 245,857 18,100 392,000 410,100 150 2,833
Guinea-Bissau GNB Africa 36,120 2,400 69,500 71,900 40 400
Guyana GUY CONCACAF 214,970 8,940 41,800 50,740 98 745
Haiti HAI CONCACAF 27,750 24,424 427,300 451,724 340 2,324
Honduras HON CONCACAF 112,090 61,300 359,300 420,600 227 6,800
Hong Kong HKG Asia 1,092 4,176 145,780 149,956 84 1,059
Hungary HUN Europe 93,030 127,226 400,100 527,326 2,778 10,765
Iceland ISL Europe 103,000 21,508 10,900 32,408 145 1,794
India IND Asia 3,287,590 384,900 20,203,000 20,587,900 6,540 38,640
Indonesia IDN Asia 1,919,440 66,960 7,027,300 7,094,260 83 1,069
Iran IRN Asia 1,648,000 449,644 1,356,900 1,806,544 120 25,800
Iraq IRQ Asia 437,072 16,000 524,000 540,000 110 2,900
Israel ISR Europe 20,770 43,866 240,000 283,866 290 12,150
Italy ITA Europe 301,230 1,513,596 3,466,700 4,980,296 16,697 78,481
Jamaica JAM CONCACAF 10,991 25,594 142,900 168,494 274 5,037
Japan JPN Asia 377,835 1,045,150 3,760,000 4,805,150 2,000 249,603
Jordan JOR Asia 92,300 4,941 116,250 121,191 102 6,231
Kazakhstan KAZ Europe 2,717,300 27,820 482,600 510,420 45 3,160
Kenya KEN Africa 582,650 75,102 1,966,000 2,041,102 711 52,010
Korea DPR PRK Asia 120,540 14,912 488,000 502,912 239 1,858
Korea Republic KOR Asia 99,313 31,127 1,063,100 1,094,227 100 4,648
Kuwait KUW Asia 17,820 2,200 43,600 45,800 40 400
Kyrgyzstan KGZ Asia 198,500 8,977 115,500 124,477 100 1,494
Laos LAO Asia 236,800 2,600 106,000 108,600 50 420
Latvia LVA Europe 64,589 8,385 76,900 85,285 97 655
Lebanon LIB Asia 10,400 18,485 300,000 318,485 178 3,495
Lesotho LES Africa 30,355 29,500 80,500 110,000 110 2,300
Liberia LBR Africa 111,370 9,267 154,000 163,267 47 656
Libya LBY Africa 1,759,540 8,800 255,000 263,800 110 2,400
Liechtenstein LIE Europe 160 2,205 1,110 3,315 10 274
Lithuania LTU Europe 65,200 15,774 120,100 135,874 65 1,565
Luxembourg LUX Europe 2,586 32,480 15,100 47,580 135 1,314
Macau MAC Asia 25 4,773 9,350 14,123 96 754
Madagascar MAD Africa 587,040 30,420 796,000 826,420 220 4,788
Malawi MWI Africa 118,480 20,100 495,700 515,800 70 2,400
Malaysia MAS Asia 329,750 9,930 575,800 585,730 110 11,810
Maldives MDV Asia 300 5,486 14,800 20,286 60 178
Mali MLI Africa 1,240,000 14,175 1,377,450 1,391,625 140 6,078
Malta MLT Europe 316 10,753 14,100 24,853 61 2,204
Mauritania MTN Africa 1,030,700 5,620 132,300 137,920 68 877
Mauritius MRI Africa 2,040 17,100 59,700 76,800 70 4,500
Mexico MEX CONCACAF 1,972,550 324,595 8,155,000 8,479,595 311 85,789
Moldova MDA Europe 33,843 10,420 158,150 168,570 89 711
Mongolia MGL Asia 1,565,000 5,220 46,000 51,220 10 103
Montenegro MNE Europe 14,026




Montserrat MSR CONCACAF 102 200 500 700
6
Morocco MAR Africa 446,550 165,016 1,463,000 1,628,016 599 8,651
Mozambique MOZ Africa 801,590 35,700 850,000 885,700 170 6,100
Myanmar MYA Asia 676,580 132,659 989,380 1,122,039 605 3,750
Namibia NAM Africa 825,418 40,460 96,500 136,960 101 1,645
Nepal NEP Asia 140,800 13,800 464,000 477,800 110 2,300
Netherlands NED Europe 41,526 1,138,860 607,000 1,745,860 4,856 11,238
New Caledonia NCL Océania 19,060 5,200 4,600 9,800 105 300
New Zealand NZL Oceania 268,680 102,257 96,500 198,757 342 19,800
Nicaragua NCA CONCACAF 129,494 120,677 346,354 467,031 1,281 5,770
Niger NIG Africa 1,267,000 7,711 535,000 542,711 120 1,338
Nigeria NGA Africa 923,768 58,710 6,595,000 6,653,710 52 33,122
Northern Ireland NIR Europe 14,148 38,820 53,500 92,320 829 12,110
Norway NOR Europe 324,220 352,165 191,000 543,165 3,218 7,201
Oman OMA Asia 212,460 8,610 49,000 57,610 43 605
Pakistan PAK Asia 803,940 64,400 2,911,000 2,975,400 720 9,900
Palestine PLE Asia 6,326 19,060 73,100 92,160 40 795
Panama PAN CONCACAF 78,200 52,600 150,800 203,400 588 2,000
Papua New Guinea PNG Oceania 462,840 68,800 128,100 196,900 463 6,400
Paraguay PAR South America 406,750 87,435 950,000 1,037,435 1,709 4,002
Peru PER South America 1,285,220 238,790 1,653,000 1,891,790 2,100 4,182
Philippines PHI Asia 300,000 30,675 1,638,090 1,668,765 85 299
Poland POL Europe 312,685 656,964 1,343,300 2,000,264 5,891 71,758
Portugal POR Europe 92,391 132,734 415,000 547,734 2,748 38,471
Puerto Rico PUR CONCACAF 9,104 23,770 198,900 222,670 77 9,617
Qatar QAT Asia 11,437 6,556 11,600 18,156 16 530
Republic of Ireland IRL Europe 70,284 252,844 168,800 421,644 5,828 7,330
Romania ROU Europe 237,500 108,620 925,700 1,034,320 2,832 20,883
Russia RUS Europe 17,075,200 846,736 4,955,800 5,802,536 14,329 259,830
Rwanda RWA Africa 26,338 10,900 375,500 386,400 110 2,000
Samoa SAM Oceania 2,944 2,300 3,400 5,700 63 400
San Marino SMR Europe 61 1,586 1,250 2,836 17 260
São Tomé e Príncipe STP Africa 1,001 800 7,600 8,400 10 122
Saudi Arabia KSA Asia 2,240,000 15,144 423,500 438,644 153 1,292
Scotland SCO Europe 78,789 111,089 309,500 420,589 6,727 10,597
Senegal SEN Africa 196,190 176,685 485,000 661,685 195 5,024
Serbia SRB Europe 88,361 132,182 309,500 441,682 2,096 14,084
Seychelles SEY Africa 455 2,060 3,800 5,860 20 390
Sierra Leone SLE Africa 71,740 6,480 253,150 259,630 24 2,463
Singapore SIN Asia 692 10,003 187,000 197,003 54 1,516
Slovakia SVK Europe 48,845 428,968 193,700 622,668 2,432 18,773
Slovenia SVN Europe 20,273 30,725 86,200 116,925 340 5,818
Solomon Islands SOL Oceania 28,450 8,820 18,000 26,820 212 560
Somalia SOM Africa 637,657 28,868 517,400 546,268 56 7,330
South Africa RSA Africa 1,219,912 1,469,410 3,071,000 4,540,410 900 20,557
South Sudan SSD Africa 644,329




Spain ESP Europe 504,782 653,190 2,181,000 2,834,190 18,190 62,573
Sri Lanka SRI Asia 65,610 51,150 378,000 429,150 583 2,220
St. Kitts and Nevis SKN CONCACAF 261 1,500 2,000 3,500 31 100
St. Lucia LCA CONCACAF 616 3,063 7,960 11,023 41 390
St. Vincent / Grenadines VIN CONCACAF 389 4,400 5,100 9,500 52 505
Sudan SDN Africa 2,505,810 46,300 1,521,000 1,567,300 440 8,800
Suriname SUR CONCACAF 163,270 9,250 26,000 35,250 31 375
Swaziland SWZ Africa 17,363 5,000 49,900 54,900 60 900
Sweden SWE Europe 449,964 552,939 454,000 1,006,939 4,236 24,950
Switzerland SUI Europe 41,290 232,700 339,000 571,700 1,806 257,783
Syria SYR Asia 185,180 34,600 396,200 430,800 170 4,300
Tahiti TAH Oceania 1,042 9,796 6,600 16,396 171 128
Tajikistan TJK Asia 143,100 3,743 129,150 132,893 50 323
Tanzania TAN Africa 945,087 26,318 200,200 226,518 204 8,775
Thailand THA Asia 514,000 28,600 1,269,400 1,298,000 150 6,600
Timor Leste TLS Asia 15,007 500 15,000 15,500 10 100
Togo TOG Africa 56,785 9,800 232,600 242,400 100 3,300
Tonga TGA Oceania 748 3,200 1,800 5,000 105 200
Trinidad and Tobago TRI CONCACAF 5,128 16,600 68,000 84,600 98 900
Tunisia TUN Africa 163,610 51,829 473,435 525,264 274 7,624
Turkey TUR Europe 780,580 197,657 2,551,000 2,748,657 4,450 208,027
Turkmenistan TKM Asia 488,100 1,415 99,000 100,415 15 195
Turks and Caicos Islands TCA CONCACAF 430 655 1,500 2,155 9 47
Uganda UGA Africa 236,040 46,514 1,145,000 1,191,514 402 5,600
Ukraine UKR Europe 603,700 692,317 1,580,700 2,273,017 70 15,580
United Arab Emirates UAE Asia 82,880 7,776 75,000 82,776 31 986
Uruguay URU South America 176,220 41,800 199,500 241,300 1,220 2,600
US Virgin Islands VIR CONCACAF 352 900 5,800 6,700 10 101
USA USA CONCACAF 9,629,091 4,186,778 20,286,000 24,472,778 9,000 796,300
Uzbekistan UZB Asia 447,400 36,900 693,300 730,200 216 1,325
Vanuatu VAN Oceania 12,200 6,400 21,000 27,400 230 316
Venezuela VEN South America 912 60,173 1,430,400 1,490,573 920 9,132
Vietnam SR VIE Asia 329,560 24,150 1,850,200 1,874,350 35 10,652
Wales WAL Europe 20,578 67,550 106,000 173,550 1,920 11,320
Yemen YEM Asia 527,970 9,200 374,100 383,300 110 502
Zambia ZAM Africa 752,614 29,211 995,606 1,024,817 918 11,559
Zimbabwe ZIM Africa 390,580 34,600 616,800 651,400 350 3,100
TOTAL

133,250,422 38,287,004 224,704,120 262,991,124 326,527 5,057,696